Page Contents
Overview
Chemistry Survey
Candle Observation Lab
States of Matter Simulation
When Water Flows Uphill
Why Does Matter Matter? - Article
Keeping Cool
How An Air Conditioner Works
New Doc 2_1.jpgWhat is a Chemical Reaction? Lab
States of Matter Blog Question
States of Matter Games
Chemical Reaction in a Bag
CSI - The Graffiti Artist - Chromatography
Chemistry Notes
Physical and Chemical Changes Practice Quiz
flashcards_1.pngFlashcards for Physical and Chemical Changes
Chemistry Quiz
Unit Review





Overview
A study of chemistry gives students opportunities to develop and /or verify ideas about the structure of matter, states of matter, interaction of matter, and conservation of matter.
This unit is divided into two sections: States of Matter and Physical and Chemical Changes

Go to Physical and Chemical Changes Objectives



States of Matter




Candle Observation Lab

Procedure:
  1. Materials: 1 candle, pack of matches, ruler, 5cm x 5cm piece of aluminum foil, 100ml glass beaker, triple beam balance safety goggles
  2. Copy the data table below:
  3. Take the candle and make observations about it: color, shape, size, mass, texture, apparent uses, etc. Record this data on the data table under Unlit Candle.
  4. Put on your safety goggles and carefully light the candle. Drip a few drops of the wax onto the square of aluminum foil and stand the candle in the wax.
  5. Make observations about the lit candle for two minutes. Record this data on the data table under Lit Candle.
  6. Take the glass beaker, turn in upside down and carefully place it over the burning candle.
  7. Make observations about the candle. Record this data on the data table under Extinguished Candle. (you may remove the beaker after the flame has gone out)


Data Table:
Candle Observation

Qualitative Observations
Quantitative Observations
Inferences
Unlit Candle
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4

Lit Candle
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4

Extinguished Candle
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4


Post Observation Questions:
  • What would you still like to know about the candle?
  • How could you find it out?



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States of Matter Simulation
During the following simulation you will learn about the structure of different types of matter as it goes through its various phase changes.
Before you begin, you need to know the definition of several vocabulary words:
  • Matter: Anything that has volume and mass.
  • Heat Energy: The energy of a material due to the random motion of its particles. Also called thermal energy.
  • Kinetic Energy: The energy of movement.
  • Atom: The basic unit of a chemical element
  • Molecule: The smallest unit of a substance that has all of the physical and chemical properties of the substance and that is composed of two or more atoms. click here for the Periodic Table of the Elements

Now that you know the vocabulary, print out the following worksheet and complete page 1.

When you have completed page 1, you may proceed to page 2. To complete this second page you must download a simulation. Click here to begin the simulation.
Click here to answer a few questions about the States of Matter Simulation.




When Water Flows Uphill







Keeping Cool
In this experiment you will learn about what happens during evaporation of two different kinds of liquid. You will also use the Science skills and processes to conduct an investigation.

Question
  • To what extent does evaporation affect temperature?

Hypothesis
    • I think _ because .

Materials
  • 1 alcohol thermometer (or temperature probe)
  • 2 strips of paper towel 1" x 3"
  • 2 eye droppers
  • 5 drops of room temperature water
  • 5 drops of room temperature rubbing alcohol

Procedures
  1. Copy the following data table:
  2. Collect your materials.
  3. Wrap the bulb or end of the thermometer with one of the paper towel strips.
  4. Lay the thermometer on a flat surface so you can read the numbers on the side. Please use the Celsius scale.
  5. Record the starting temperature of the thermometer. This is the room temperature.
  6. Use the medicine dropper to put 5 drops of water on the paper towel strip surrounding the thermometer. Place the drops as close to the end of the thermometer as possible.
  7. Record the temperature on the thermometer every 30 seconds for three minutes.
  8. Remove the paper towel strip and shake the thermometer gently until it returns to room temperature.
  9. Using rubbing alcohol instead of water, repeat steps 3-7.


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Conclusion
  1. How does evaporation affect temperature? Do you think it affects every liquid equally? Explain using details from the lab.
  2. The basic idea behind this experiment is that there is a transfer of energy taking place. What kind of energy transfers do you think are taking place? Describe them.




How An Air Conditioner Works
Watch the following video about how an air conditioner works and think about the previous experiment, Keeping Cool. How are they related?




New Doc 2_1.jpg
What is a Chemical Reaction? Lab

Purpose
  • The purpose of this lab is to observe a chemical reaction as it takes place. Students will make careful measurements and observations as they complete the lab. During this lab students will observe some of the indications that a chemical change is taking place between two or more compounds.

Materials
  • 1 test tube and test tube rack
  • 1 small piece of chalk (aprox. 2 cm)
  • enough vinegar to fill the test-tube half-way (aprox. 20 ml)
  • 1 balloon
  • 1 thermometer
  • tape to hold the thermometer in place

Procedures
  1. Read all procedures and decide how you are going to collect your data during the lab.
  2. Tape the end of the thermometer so it is touching the outside bottom of the test tube. Make sure that the test tube can sit firmly in the test tube holder.
  3. Fill the test tube approximately half-full of vinegar. Record the temperature as your Starting Temperature.
  4. Place the piece of chalk inside the balloon and put the end of the balloon over the end of the test tube. Be sure to not let the chalk drop into the vinegar yet!
  5. Lift up the balloon so the chalk drops into the vinegar and make observations. Make and record your observations for several minutes until you feel there are no more observations to be made.
Evaluation
  • Click here to answer some questions about chemical reactions.







States of Matter Blog Question
States of Matter Blog Question




external image Quizlet-logo.jpg&sa=X&ei=3jVRTZXKL8Gltwf_4rXrCg&ved=0CAQQ8wc&usg=AFQjCNHzUgNTeuZFFiiDz8HK9SWlleqLfg
States of Matter - Online flashcards and games
Do you have an iPhone or iPod Touch? Use the Touchcards app to study your Quizlet flash-cards. For the States of Matter unit use the code - 2375193 to access the virtual cards.






Games
#1 States of Matter Vocabulary
#2 States of Matter Game
#3 States of Matter Game






Chemical Reaction in a Bag

You will be performing chemical reactions, making observations about the results of these reactions, and then designing your own experiments to explain your observations and test hypotheses that you develop.
During the experiments you should make observations such as:
    • Gets hot
    • Gets cold
    • Turns yellow
    • Turns green
    • Turns blue
    • Produces gas
It may be helpful to review the steps of the scientific method.

Materials
  • 1 plastic ziploc-style bag per lab group
  • 1 film canister
  • 10-ml graduated cylinders, one per lab group
  • Labquest with temperature probe
  • teaspoons, 1-2 per lab group
  • bromthymol blue indicator
  • calcium chloride (rock salt)
  • sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
Procedures
  1. First spend 5 minutes exploring the lab materials using all of your senses except taste. Write down your observations regarding the way the chemicals look and smell and feel, etc.
  2. Place a teaspoon of sodium bicarbonate in the film canister and place it in the baggie. Put 5 mL of bromthymol blue solution in the baggie and then seal up the bag, removing as much air as possible.
  3. Place the temperature probe for the Labquest under the baggie and turn on the automatic graphing feature.
  4. Carefully remove the lid of the film canister and mix the contents. What happens?
  5. After rinsing the canister and the baggy use the same method as above to mix a teaspoon of calcium chloride with 5 ml of indicator. What happens?
  6. How do the two reactions compare?
  7. You can use these observations to describe basic chemical reactions. For example, calcium chloride + bromthymol blue indicator --> heat. Write out reactions for your mixtures.
  8. Next design an experiment to test a hypothesis. Some things to consider experimenting with are:
    • what do you expect to happen when quantities are changed?
    • What would happen if two components are mixed before a third is added?
    • Use your imagination! Write out your experiment using the steps in the scientific method.







CSI – The Graffiti Artist
Recently, several students have reported graffiti on the bathroom walls. The Principal has confiscated markers from 3 student suspects for scientific testing. Perform the following experiment to help catch the criminal and solve the crime.

Materials
· Fine tipped markers labeled A, B, and C
· 3 pieces of filter paper
· 1 100 ml beaker, for water and filter placement.
· Pencils to mark the filter paper bottom circle with date, time, class and marker code.

Procedures
1. Draw a pencil line all the way across the paper approximately 10 mm from one end of each filter. The line should be perpendicular to the length of the paper. Label each paper as A, B, and C.
  • chromatography.jpg
2. Using each of the suspect markers, mark a single dot on the pencil line of the three separate pieces of filter paper.
3. Carefully add 5 ml of water to cover the bottom of the beaker. Do not splash or wet the glass walls.
4. Carefully bend the marked filter into "V" (hot-dog style) and insert dotted filter into the beaker - dot-side down. The dot should not be under water at this point!
5. Allow the paper to sit in the water for 2 minutes and then remove.
6. Place each filter on the counter. When the filters have dried, compare them to the sample taken from the crime scene.


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Conclusion
1. What does this lab show you about some inks?
2. How can this process of separating a mixture like ink into its different parts be helpful in solving a crime?


Explanation
· The experiment you just performed used the process of paper chromatography. This is the process of separating small amounts of substances from mixtures by the rates at which they move through or along a medium. In this case, the medium is the filter paper.
· Because molecules in ink and other mixtures have different characteristics (such as size and solubility), they travel at different speeds when pulled along a piece of paper by a solvent (in this case, water). For example, black ink contains several colors. When the water flows through a word written in black, the molecules of each one of the colors behave differently, resulting in a sort of “rainbow” effect.
· Chromatography is used to separate and identify all sorts of substances in police work. Drugs from narcotics to aspirin can be identified in urine and blood samples, often with the aid of chromatography.

Chromatography Video






Chemistry Notes
Chemistry
  • A study of the investigation of matter
    • Structure of matter
    • States of matter
    • Interactions of matter
Matter
  • Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume)
  • Ex. – Everything is matter
    • Air, wood, metal, liquid water, etc.
    • Everything that exists
Atom
  • The smallest part of a substance, which can exist and still retain the properties of that substance.
Element
  • A substance that is made up of only one kind of atom and cannot be broken down into simpler parts during a chemical reaction.
  • H = Hydrogen, N = Nitrogen
  • Found on the Periodic Table of the Elements
Molecule
  • The smallest unit of a substance that has all of the physical and chemical properties of the substance
  • composed of two or more atoms.
  • Ex. - H2O = Water, O2 = oxygen
Energy
  • The ability to do work
Heat energy
  • The energy of a material due to the random motion of its particles.
  • Also called thermal energy.
Kinetic energy
  • The energy of movement
Solid
  • State of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume
  • Freezing can change matter into a solid
  • The atoms and molecules of solids do not move as much as other states of matter
  • Removing heat energy can change a liquid into a solid
Liquid
  • State of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape
  • Takes the shape of its container
  • The atoms and molecules are more active
  • Adding heat energy can change a solid into a liquid
Gas
  • State of matter that has no definite shape or volume
  • Spreads out to fill the container it is in, no matter how large
  • The atoms and molecules are very active
  • As heat energy increases, gas pressure also increases
States of matter
  • The state of matter is dependent upon the amount of heat energy it contains
  • More heat energy: atoms and molecules move more quickly
  • Less heat energy: atoms and molecules move more slowly
Chemical change
  • Change that takes place when two or more substances interact to form new substances
  • Often gives off heat, changes color, or produces a gas
  • Ex. - Baking a cake, burning a match, rusting
Physical Change
  • A change that occurs in the physical property/properties of a substance without changing its composition.
  • Ex. – cutting wood, dissolving salt in water, melting, freezing









Physical and Chemical Changes Practice Quiz
Try this Physical and Chemical Changes Practice Quiz as many times as you would like. You can keep going back until you get the correct answer!







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FlashCards
Physical and Chemical Changes Flashcards-







Chemistry Quiz

Take the Chemistry Quiz to show your knowledge!



Unit Review


Click here for the Chemistry Review Study Guide




Rainbow Lab